USAID’s REAL-Water Activity conducted a desk study from December 2021–March 2022 to identify the available evidence and knowledge gaps related to the professionalization of rural water supply and to inform research plans. The objectives of the desk study were threefold:
- Understand the historical evolution of rural water supply and approaches to management in low-, middle-, and high-income countries;
- Identify the available evidence linking management models and service performance; and
- Unpack known processes and activities that are in place to improve the management of rural water services and that have led to improved service performance and identified knowledge gaps.