This report presents findings from an ex-post evaluation of the Millennium Water and Sanitation Program in Senegal (PEPAM/USAID – Programme d’Eau Potable et d’Assainissement du Millénaire au Sénégal). Implemented from 2009–2014 by Research Triangle Institute (RTI) and a consortium of partners, PEPAM aimed to improve sustainable access to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) in four regions of Senegal.
Worldwide, 892 million people practice open defecation, most of whom live in rural areas of South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) is the most widely deployed approach to generate demand for, and use of sanitation facilities. CLTS relies on behavioral change and community self-enforcement to end open defecation.
Did you know one out of every three people in the world lacks a hygienic toilet in their homes? Sanitation is more than just toilets, however — it encompasses the facilities, behaviors, and services that prevent diseases caused by contact with human waste. USAID helps partner countries reach the poor and underserved to end open defecation, gain first-time or improved access to basic sanitation services, and move progressively toward safely managed services.
As part of its efforts to advance understanding about the effects and effectiveness of collaborating, learning, and adapting (CLA) in improving development outcomes, The USAID LEARN proect is conducting an in-depth review and comparison of two cases selected from the 2015 and 2016 CLA case competitions.
The Kenya Integrated Water, Sanitation and Hygiene program (KIWASH) is a $51 million 5-year project (October 2015 to September 2020) funded by USAID/Kenya and East Africa (USAID/KEA) and implemented by a consortium led by DAI. The goal of KIWASH is to improve lives and health through development and management of sustainable water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services in Kenya.
USAID/Kenya and East Africa (USAID/KEA) launched the Kenya Integrated Water Sanitation and Hygiene Program (KIWASH) project in October 2015, a $51 million five-year activity implemented by a consortium led by DAI. KIWASH was designed to institutionalize catalytic models of sustainable service delivery for accelerated expansion of water and sanitation services and to improve complementary hygiene behaviors.
Globally, CLTS has been widely embraced as a strategy to end open defecation, and dozens of countries have incorporated the approach as part of national policy for rural sanitation. Though the “total sanitation” focus of CLTS is laudable, there is reason to believe that the poor and more vulnerable segments of the community do not benefit equally, as they are more likely to construct lower-quality toilets and revert to open defecation.
On Wednesday, December 13, 2017, the USAID-funded Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Partnerships and Learning for Sustainability (WASHPaLS) Project held a webinar on the role of community-led total sanitation (CLTS) in helping to end open defecation. WASHPaLS presented key findings from a desk review assessing the knowledge base on CLTS program performance. The findings and identified evidence gaps will inform the WASHPaLS research agenda for subsequent years of the project.
The Kenya Integrated Water Sanitation and Hygiene Program (KIWASH) combines nutrition programming with improved access to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). USAID commissioned this midterm evaluation at the start of the project’s fourth year.