Global evidence suggests deeply embedded structural and behavioral determinants, including restrictive norms and inequalities related to gender, sustain poor sanitation and hygiene conditions. However, not enough is known about the specific dynamics that drive sanitation and hygiene behaviors in Mozambique. USAID completed a participatory assessment in February 2019, identifying the need for further research to design robust, evidence-based hygiene behavior change programs, particularly those which address gender-related determinants. In response, the USAID Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Partnerships and Learning for Sustainability (WASHPaLS) project conducted formative research on gender, sanitation, and hygiene in the Nampula and Zambezia provinces of Mozambique. This final report details the findings from the research into barriers and motivations for select sanitation and hygiene behaviors--namely, latrine construction and use, safe disposal of child feces, handwashing, and menstrual hygiene management--and to develop practical recommendations for gender-transformative water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) programming.
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