Financial Institutions Reform and Expansion (FIRE-D I, II, III)
FIRE-D partnered with India’s central, state, and city governments to develop sustainable urban environmental services and to ensure the poor have access to those services. It worked to expand WatSan access to the poor in particular by integrating their perspectives into project planning processes
- The first phase (1994–1999) used the model of commercially viable infrastructure projects and private sector participation demonstration projects to develop systems of citywide infrastructure.
- The second phase (1999–2004) supported state-level agencies to develop important large-scale urban reforms and to institutionalize better project development practices
- The third phase (2005–2011) worked on piloting infrastructure projects, financial tools, and governance reforms, which were then shared, along with lessons learned, for incorporation into a major Government of India (GoI) urban development scheme called the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM).
FIRE-D expects to have:
- Decentralized control at ULB level (e.g. Model Municipal Law)
- Local accountability transparency (governance suport)
- Public engagement
- Capable institutions
- Inclusive pro-poor planning
- Strong financial management
- Expand own source revenue
- Improve creditworthiness