Key Findings from the Endline Evaluation of the Women + Water Global Development Alliance: Maharashtra & Madhya Pradesh, India


The Women + Water Alliance (W+W Alliance), is a 6-year global development alliance between USAID and Gap Inc. with the overall goal to improve and sustain the health and well-being of women and communities touched by the apparel industry in India. Together with CARE,, WaterAid, and the Institute for Sustainable Communities, W+W Alliance has been delivering converging activities related to water, sanitation, and hygiene in seven districts in the Indian states of Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh. Learning partner Institute for Development Impact conducted a baseline study in 2018 and an endline evaluation in mid-2022 to determine the extent to which the W+W Alliance contributed to improved well-being in target communities.

Key findings from the endline evaluation:

  • Program satisfaction was extremely high among direct P.A.C.E. participants.
  • Women’s empowerment appeared to improve among direct P.A.C.E. participants but not among the broader community.
  • The enabling environment supported change at the household and community level.
  • Water access improved across time in many households, particularly in Madhya Pradesh.
  • The overall burden of water fetching decreased, and responsibilities shifted in many households.
  • Satisfaction with the household’s main drinking water source was high at endline, with improvements especially observed in Madhya Pradesh.
  • Levels of demand for improved water sources were generally stable from baseline to endline, while water loan intent was variable.
  • WASH-related practice did not change consistently across time and place and remains an area for continued improvement.