The Impact of Pro-Poor Sanitation Subsidies in Open Defecation-Free Communities: A Randomized, Controlled Trial in Rural Ghana


According to the World Health Organization/United Nations International Children’s Fund Joint Monitoring Program, 494 million people practice open defecation globally. After achieving open defecation-free (ODF) status through efforts such as Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS), communities (particularly vulnerable households) may revert to open defecation, especially when toilet collapse is common and durable toilets are unaffordable. Accordingly, there is increasing interest in pro-poor sanitation subsidies. This study, produced by USAID’s Water, Sanitation, And Hygiene Partnerships And Learning For Sustainability (WASHPALS) project, determined the impacts of a pro-poor sanitation subsidy program on sanitation conditions among the most vulnerable households and others in the community.

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Journal Article
Publication Date
Produced By
USAID/Water, Sanitation, And Hygiene Partnerships And Learning For Sustainability (WASHPALS)
John T. Trimmer, Joyce Kisiangani, Rachel Peletz, Kara Stuart, Prince Antwi-Agyei, Jeff Albert, Ranjiv Khush and Caroline Delaire
18 pages
Implementing Partners
Population Focus
Related Countries