Antimicrobial Resistance: An Emerging Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Issue


This brief examines the emerging problem of antimicrobial resistance. As a result of decades of use and abuse, antibiotics, and other antimicrobial agents, their functional metabolites, antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and their antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes are common and widespread contaminants in water and other environmental media, including wastewater and human excreta used for agricultural or aquacultural purposes or discharged to the environment, where they can persist for long periods of time.

Publication Date
Produced By
World Health Organization
Mark D. Sobsey, UNC–Chapel Hill
Lydia Abebe, UNC–Chapel Hill
16 pages
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