ecosystem services

Article

Degradation of Kenya’s Water Towers Contribute to Growing Water Crisis

Kenya’s five major forest “water towers”—Mau Forest Complex, Mt. Kenya, Aberdares, Cherangany Hills, and Mt. Elgon—provide an estimated 75 percent of the country’s water resources and are central to Kenya’s economic and social well-being. Water towers are forested, high elevation landscapes from which most of the country’s major rivers (e.g., Tana, Mara, and Ewaso Ng’iro) originate.

Brief

Ecosystem-based Adaptation and Water Security

Fresh water sustains all life and is an essential requirement for human development. Globally, many communities are water-stressed, and an estimated 1.8 billion people are projected to live in areas with absolute water scarcity by 2025 (UNDP 2014). Communities rely on secure water resources for a wide array of purposes, including direct consumption, household use, irrigation, energy production, and sanitation and hygiene.

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The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species

The IUCN Species Programme working with the IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC) has been assessing the conservation status of species, subspecies, varieties, and even selected subpopulations on a global scale for the past 50 years in order to highlight taxa threatened with extinction, and therefore promote their conservation.

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Biodiversity Hotspots

The Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund (CEPF) focuses on biodiversity hotspots​, Earth’s most biologically rich and threatened areas.

The 36 biodiversity hotspots hold especially high numbers of unique species, yet their combined area now covers only 2.3 percent of the Earth's land surface. Many encompass priority areas in multiple countries. Each one faces extreme threats and has lost at least 70 percent of its original habitat.

Evaluation

Evaluation of the Indonesian Biodiversity Foundation Project (KEHATI)

In the decade since its founding, KEHATI has established a nationwide reputation for leadership in Indonesia’s biodiversity efforts. Formidable challenges faced KEHATI, both in translating the intrinsic complexity of biodiversity into practicable programs and in contesting nationwide environmental decline.

Evaluation

Mid-Term Evaluation of the Water Reuse and Environmental Conservation (WREC) Project

This is an independent external evaluation report of the Water Reuse and Environmental Conservation (WREC) project funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Mission in Jordan.

The WREC project started on August 1, 2010 and will end on July 30, 2015. The project is being implemented by AECOM. The evaluation of WREC was conducted during the period of October – November 2013, by a team of experts assembled by Mendez England & Associates (ME&A), located in Bethesda, Maryland. The team comprised one international and two Jordanian experts.