What Is the Evidence on Top-Down and Bottom-Up Approaches in Improving Access to Water, Sanitation, and Electricity Services in Low-Income or Informal Settlements?

This systematic review examines the evidence on the effectiveness of different urban-planning approaches in providing access to water, sanitation and electricity services in low-income or informal settlements in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs). The study was funded by the Department for International Development (DFID) of the UK government and conducted by the Indian Institute of Technology Madras.

Literature Review
Produced By
Department for International Development (DFID)
Thillai Rajan Annamalai, Ganesh Devkar, Ashwin Mahalingam, Solomon Benjamin, Sudhir Chella Rajan, Akash Deep
448 pages
Population Focus
Related Countries