The purpose of this evaluation of the USAID / Indonesia Avian and Pandemic Influenza (API) program was to review and evaluate its progress and performance, since the last program assessment in 2009. The main objective of the evaluation was to provide insights and important feedback to each of the partners and stakeholders, including the strengths and areas where technical, administrative, and management efforts could be improved.
In 2006, USAID became involved in API control in Indonesia, in response to the first human deaths that had just occurred in Indonesia during 2005. In 2006 and 2007 USAID awarded contracts to 5 implementing partners: FAO, WHO, DAI, JSI and ILRI. Most of these contracts were renewed in 2010 and 2011 with additional funding through 2012 and 2013. Program activities have included a wide range of API control activities on both the animal and human health sides. Indonesia has received special attention from USAID and the international community because it has the highest cumulative number (as per 24 January 20141 ) of reported human cases (195), deaths (163) and fatality rate (83%), among the countries where H5N1 is endemic in poultry. Though the number of confirmed human cases with H5N1 has decreased, only 3 confirmed cases in 2013, the threat of animal to human transmission remains. The HPAI H5N1 virus remains endemic in poultry in Indonesia, with a new clade (2.3.2) having been discovered in 2013. The threat to humans continues with the emergence of new diseases in the region such as MERS-CoV, and other subtypes of avian influenza viruses like low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H7N9 and H10N8.