This report provides a synthesis of various rural water studies and systems analyses undertaken in two rural woredas (districts) in Ethiopia: South Ari, in the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples Region (SNNPR), and Mile, in the Afar Region. The Sustainable WASH Systems Learning Partnership conducted these assessments with representatives from local government and the USAID Lowland WASH Activity. The baseline studies include an asset inventory, service delivery assessment, life-cycle cost analysis, sustainability check, organizational network analysis, and factor mapping. Following a structure based on nine building blocks for the delivery of WASH services (institutions, legislation, finance, planning, infrastructure management and development, monitoring, regulation, learning and adaptation, and water resources management), this report summarizes the strengths of the decentralized local systems that deliver services in these locations, describing key actors and factors and the interactions between them. The report makes recommendations for activities to strengthen the systems that improve service delivery.