In Ethiopia and Uganda, the Sustainable WASH Systems Learning Partnership (SWS) developed and piloted a novel Factor Mapping approach to better understand the complex relationships between factors that influence water, sanitation, and hygiene services. The Factor Mapping process is a stakeholder-driven decision support technique that generates systems-based insights into how factors interact as a complex and dynamic system to affect WASH service delivery outcomes. This report presents findings from Factor Mapping activities conducted in four local WASH system contexts: the rural and small town water systems of South Ari and Mile districts in Ethiopia’s South Omo Zone and Afar Region, Kabarole District in Uganda, and the small town urban sanitation system of Woliso in Ethiopia’s Oromia Region. The report presents an overview of the Factor Mapping approach, types of systems analysis employed, and cross-context findings and reflections from the first iteration of the process within SWS. Individual results are then presented for each context, including background information, key findings and recommendations.