Across low-and middle-income countries (LMICs), the public institutions mandated to provide water and sanitation services in cities have limited financial capacity and/or capabilities to provide citywide coverage. The population in unregulated areas, often informal, peri-urban, or low-income settlements, are typically covered, informally, by small local providers (SLPs), who are often not officially recognized or regulated.
This study is based on literature review and case studies to understand approaches for cities to formally leverage SLPs for delivering drinking water and fecal sludge management (FSM) services to households in LMIC contexts. Across cases from four cities/regions in Sub-Saharan Africa and three cities in Asia, the study considered the effects of these approaches on equitable access and adaptability of urban service delivery systems to future shocks. This product was developed by USAID’s Urban Resilience by Building Partnerships and Applying New Evidence in WASH (URBAN WASH) Activity.