Approaches to Improve Sanitation Access in Pastoralist Areas within the Arid and Semi-arid Lands of Kenya

Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) has been widely used and adapted as an approach for reducing open defecation. The Government of Kenya has adopted CLTS as a core element of its national sanitation strategy, but conventional CLTS approaches have been difficult to implement successfully among pastoralist groups in Kenya’s Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASALs, Figure 1). The USAID Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Partnerships and Learning for Sustainability (WASHPaLS) project investigated the distinctive characteristics of pastoral communities to inform how rural sanitation programs can be adapted in the ASALs to improve outcomes. We studied 17 pastoral communities in three ASAL counties (Samburu, Turkana, Kitui), conducting 34 focus group discussions and 154 interviews with households, community leaders, national and local government officials, and implementing partners.


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