Ex-Post Evaluations > Ex-Post Evaluation: Millennium Water and Sanitation Program (PEPAM/USAID)
What We Did
The evaluation team looked at the Millennium Water and Sanitation Program in Senegal (PEPAM/USAID – Programme d’Eau Potable et d’Assainissement du Millénaire au Sénégal). Implemented from 2009–2014 by Research Triangle Institute (RTI) and a consortium of partners, PEPAM aimed to improve sustainable access to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) in four regions of Senegal.
How We Did It
This evaluation assessed PEPAM/USAID’s implementation approaches to understand the extent to which increased access to WASH services was sustained several years after the activity ended and why or why not these interventions endured over time. In November and December 2018, an evaluation team (ET) conducted observations of 169 water points (WPs); water quality testing of 105 functional WPs; 514 water user surveys; 617 household sanitation/hygiene surveys with observations; and 56 qualitative interviews with government officials, implementers, local entrepreneurs, water committees, and community members.
What We Learned
Based on this evaluation’s findings and exploration of the literature, subsidies can help improve the quality of household latrines, but increasing use of those latrines remains a challenge. In contrast, CLTS (a nonsubsidized approach) is often credited with increasing use of unimproved latrines, but serious questions linger about quality and long-term sustainability of the latrines built after CLTS triggering, particularly as it relates to moving up the sanitation ladder. This evaluation underscores observations in the literature and provides the opportunity to examine the potential value of a hybrid approach. Evaluation findings on WP functionality also confirm the sector’s understanding of sustainability challenges related to rural water supply, while the handwashing results suggest that low-cost, low-quality handwashing stations such as tippy taps do not lead to sustained behavior change. It may be worth considering hygiene investments that reduce the behavior change burden on targeted beneficiaries.
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About the Ex-Post Evaluation Series
The USAID Water Office is conducting a series of independent ex-post evaluations of the Agency’s water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) activities to inform future USAID investments in the sector and to better understand the long-term impact and sustainability of its interventions several years after projects close.
This evaluation series will help USAID understand whether and how its activity results have been sustained. All activities included in the series must have been closed for a minimum of three years and could not be recipients of Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance or Food for Peace funding. Preference is given to USAID missions that are at a point in their design cycle to incorporate learnings into upcoming WASH programs.
This evaluation series builds upon USAID and Rotary International’s WASH Sustainability Index Tool, a framework to assess a WASH activity’s likelihood to be sustainable according to the following factors: availability of finance for sanitation; local capacity for construction and maintenance of latrines; the influence of social norms; and governance.